Throughout history, virtually every country around the globe has seen media inexorably develop as communications systems improve. However, the unique and varied cultures, traditions and economies of states mean that even neighbouring countries can develop different forms of media system, highlighting and upholding different values and ideologies with the same vigour. This essay will explore how media can best operate in support of democracy by discussing the differing media systems of Italy and the United States of America. In particular, this essay will utilise the works of Daniel Hallin and Paolo Mancini to examine the differences between each country’s media system; the “Mediterranean or Polarised Pluralist Model” and the “North Atlantic or Liberal Model” respectively.
In his article “Journalism as an Anglo-American Invention”, published in the European Journal of Communication (11:3), Jean Chalaby argues that it was in Britain and the United States of America during the 19th century that the “discursive practices and strategies which characterize journalism were invented” (1996, p. 304). This essay examines the specific “discursive practices and strategies” Chalaby refers to, in particular the idea of ‘objectivity’, the practice of interviewing, and the prominence of the factual and accurate news report, as well as the historical and cultural contexts in the US and Britain which encouraged the emergence of journalism. It assesses the impact of ‘Anglo-American’, or ‘liberal’, journalism and its overall impact on the field of journalism as a whole. This essay evaluates alternative models of journalism in comparison to the Anglo-American, before concluding that the Anglo-American’s introduced revolutionary practices and ideals to journalism, but far from “invented” it. Continue reading “Is Journalism an ‘Anglo-American Invention’?”